Tuberculosis is a disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis which usually attack the lungs, but can attack any part of the body such as the kidney, spine, and brain.
India is the country with the highest burden of TB, with World Health Organisation (WHO) statistics for 2013 giving an estimated incidence of 2.1 million cases of TB for India out of a global incidence of 9 million. The estimated TB prevalence figure for 2013 is given as 2.6 million Treatment of TB uses antibiotics to kill the bacteria.
Effective TB treatment is difficult, due to the unusual structure and chemical composition of the mycobacterial cell wall.
The BCG vaccine has limitations, and research to develop new TB vaccines is ongoing. A number of potential candidates are currently in phase I and II clinical trials.