Type 1 diabetes usually develops as a result of autoimmune pancreatic beta-cell destruction in genetically susceptible individuals. Up to 90% of patients will have autoantibodies to at least one of 3 antigens: glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD); insulin; and a tyrosine-phosphatase-like molecule, islet auto-antigen-2 (IA-2).  Beta-cell destruction proceeds sub-clinically for months to years as insulitis (inflammation of the beta cell). When 80% to 90% of beta cells have been destroyed, hyperglycaemia develops.
There's no cure for diabetes, so treatment aims to keep your blood glucose levels as normal as possible and to control your symptoms to prevent health problems developing later in life. Treatment for type 1 diabetes includes: Taking insulin, Carbohydrate counting, Frequent blood sugar monitoring, Eating healthy foods ,Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight blood sugar levels before meals between 70 and 130 mg/dL (3.9 to 7.2 mmol/L) and after meal Levels not higher than 180 mg/dL (10 mmol/L) two hours after eating should be maintained.
The European Commission Directorate General for Research and Innovation (DG RTD) and the JDRF (formerly Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation) jointly organized a workshop held in Brussels on type 1 diabetes with the ultimate goal of defining the state-of-art in the field, identifying gaps, and brainstorming about the possibilities offered by personalized medicine approaches in this area. The speakers laid out that time frame for the next major advances in type 1 diabetes.