Brazil is the fifth largest country by both area and population. Brazil is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language, and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and occupies 47.3 % of the continent of South America. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, and extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats.
Brazil is something of an all-year round destination with temperatures rarely dip below 20°C (68°F), apart from in the mountains and southern regions. The climate varies from hot and dry in the arid interior to humid and sticky in the tropical rainforests of the Amazon jungle. The highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina at 2,994 m (9,823 ft). Brazil is bordered by the countries of Argentina, Bolivia, Colombia, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay, Venezuela, and France (overseas department of France, French Guiana).Much of the climate is tropical, with the south being relatively temperate.
Brazil's economy is the largest of Latin America and the second largest in the Western Hemisphere. From 2000 to 2012, Brazil was one of the fastest-growing major economies in the world, with an average annual GDP growth rate of over 5%, with its economy in 2012 surpassing that of the United Kingdom, making Brazil the world's sixth largest economy. However, Brazil's economy growth has decelerated in 2013 and had almost no liquid growth throughout 2014, and the country's economy is expected to shrink by 4% in 2016.
Infectious diseases are still significant causes of deaths in Brazil. The infectious diseases include HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, Chagas disease, diarrheal diseases and other infectious diseases. A survey conducted revealed that there was a high concentration of burden rates in the coast regions of the state. It could be concluded that more than 90% of the burden was attributed to the early mortality component. The highest burden was observed among men, children under 5 years of age and at the coast regions of the state. The highest levels of burden were due to HIV/AIDS. One of the most popular Journals in the field of Infectious diseases include, Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases.