Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely.
Symptoms: Many of the symptoms of mitral stenosis, such as shortness of breath and fatigue, result from a back-up of blood in the lungs. Other symptoms of mitral stenosis may include quick weight gain; weakness; dizziness; swelling in the ankles, feet and/or abdomen (edema); and/or heart palpitations (irregular heartbeat).
Treatment: A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: A tertiary centre prospective observational study was conducted. Detailed histopathological examination was performed in a tertiary centre specialized in the investigation of cardiac pathology in SCD. Hearts from 720 consecutive cases of SCD referred by coroners and pathologists from 2007 to 2009 were included. A comparison was drawn with diagnoses from referring pathologists. Most SCDs occurred in males (66%), with the median age being 32 years. The majority (57%) of deaths occurred at home. The main diagnoses were a morphologically normal heart (n = 321; 45%), cardiomyopathy (n = 207, 29%), and coronary artery pathology (n = 71; 10%). In 158 out of a sample of 200 consecutive cases, a cardiac examination was also performed by the referring pathologist with a disparity in diagnosis in 41% of the cases (κ = 0.48). Referring pathologists were more inclined to diagnose cardiomyopathy than normality with only 50 out of 80 (63%) normal hearts being described correctly.