Dislocated shoulder means the ball joint of the upper arm has moved out of the shoulder socket region . The surrounding tissues may also have become overstretched or erupted. The shoulder is one of the easiest joints to dislocate because the ball joint sits in a very shallow socket. This makes the arm extremely mobile and able to move in many directions, but also means it's not very stable. The Dislocated shoulder condition mainly occurs due to fractures in 30% of cases.It may also occure due to glenohumeral damage in about 555 of cases especially in younger patients or due to rotator cuff injury more commonly in elders or also due to nerve injuries and vascular injuries.
The diagnosis for shoulder dislocation is usually done by taking an X-ray of the area of injury which will reveal the complications involved in the site of injury such as fractures etc. If necessary surgery is performed in case of fractures and if there are no fractures then arm will be gently manipulated back into its shoulder joint using a procedure known as reduction. In some cases people tear a rotator cuff tendon when they dislocate their shoulder. If these tissues have been damaged, you may need surgery to repair them. These operations are carried out under general anaesthetic and are increasingly being done with keyhole surgery, using only small incisions and an arthroscope which is a thin tube fitted with a light source and a camera.
The tests used to diagnose shoulder dislocation are: Sulcus test, Apprehension test, Fulcrum test, Crank test, Relocation test, Surprise test, Jerk test, Radiographic evaluation, Traction –countertraction method, Hippocrates method, Stimpsons Technique, Kochers Technique.
Shoulder dislocation is documented in Eyptian tomb murals as early as 3000 BC. Approximately 1.7% of population are suffering from this condition and many cases have been reported so far. The bimodal distribution in between men and women is observed and in men aged 20-30 years the ratio is M:F-9:1 and in women aged 61-80 the ratio is M:F-1:3. This condition is rarely observed in children.