Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is the most common type of non-invasive breast cancer. Ductal means that the cancer starts inside the milk ducts, carcinoma refers to any cancer that begins in the skin or other tissues (including breast tissue) that cover or line the internal organs, and in situ means "in its original place." DCIS is called "non-invasive" because it hasn’t spread beyond the milk duct into any normal surrounding breast tissue. DCIS isn’t life-threatening, but having DCIS can increase the risk of developing an invasive breast cancer later on. There are two main reasons this number is so large and has been increasing over time:
• People are living much longer lives. As we grow older, our risk of breast cancer increases.
• More people are getting mammograms, and the quality of the mammograms has improved.
With better screening, more cancers are being spotted early. DCIS generally has no signs or symptoms. A small number of people may have a lump in the breast or some discharge coming out of the nipple. According to the National Cancer Institute, about 80% of DCIS cases are found by mammography. Diagnosing DCIS usually involves a combination of procedures such as physical examination of breasts such as lumps on breasts etc,mammography which shows the the cancer cells inside the ducts as a cluster of these microcalcifications, which appear either as white specks or as a shadow also biopsy can be done to detect the disease.
The standard treatment options for DCIS include the following:
• Lumpectomy followed by radiation therapy
• Mastectomy which includes removal of breast
• Hormonal therapy after surgery
• Chemotherapy, a form of treatment that sends anti-cancer medications throughout the body, is generally not needed for DCIS.
The diagnosis rate amongst women aged 50-64 years showed a significant 5.9% increase in the Ireland (1990-2007) and 11.5% increase in the ROI (2007-2014). The rate of diagnosis (50-64 years) stabilized in the Ireland between 2005 and 2007 and was substantially higher than in other western populations with national screening programmes.