Eye melanomas are the most common primary tumors of the iris, with an incidence ranging from 50-70% of all iris tumors; of these, 10-24% may be melanomas. Melanomas arise from malignant proliferation of the neuroectodermally derived iris stromal melanocytes, which replaces the normal iris stromal architecture. While melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the iris, it comprises only 3%-10% of all uveal melanomas.
Eye melanoma may not cause signs and symptoms. When they do occur, signs and symptoms of eye melanoma can include growing dark spot on the iris, sensation of flashing lights, change in the shape of the dark circle (pupil) at the center of your eye, poor or blurry vision in one eye etc.
To detect melanoma doctor does a n eye checkup or eye ultrasound which uses high-frequency sound waves from a hand-held, wand-like apparatus called a transducer to produce images of your eye or imaging of the blood vessels in and around the tumor (angiogram). A small eye melanoma may not require immediate treatment. Operations used to treat eye melanoma include procedures to remove part of the eye or a procedure to remove the entire eye(enucleation).Clinical and histopathologic studies show that only 13%-25% of all suspected iris melanomas actually meet the criteria for melanomas. Rates of transformation of a suspicious iris nevus to melanoma are reported at 4% in 10 years and 11% by 20 years