Familial Mediterranian fever is an inflammatory disorder that causes recurrent fevers and painful inflammation of your abdomen, lungs and joints. Familial Mediterranean fever is an inherited disorder that usually occurs in people of Mediterranean origin including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect any ethnic group. Familial Mediterranean fever is typically diagnosed during childhood. While there's no cure for this disorder, you may be able to relieve signs and symptoms of familial Mediterranean fever or even prevent them altogether by sticking to your treatment plan.Signs and symptoms of familial Mediterranean fever usually begin during childhood. They occur in bouts called attacks that last one to three days. Arthritic attacks may last for weeks or months.
• A swollen, tender scrotum
The diagnosis is clinically made on the basis of the history of typical attacks, especially in patients from the ethnic groups in which FMF is more highly prevalent. An acute phase response is present during attacks, with high C-reactive protein levels, an elevated white blood cell count and other markers of inflammation. In patients with a long history of attacks, monitoring the kidney function is of importance in predicting chronic kidney failure.Blodd tests, genetic testing,physical examination is done to diagnose the disease. Medications used to control signs and symptoms of familial Mediterranean fever include: Colchicine, Other medications include rilonacept (Arcalyst) and anakinra (Kineret).
The frequency of FMF in any location depends on the ethnic background of the population. To survive ethnic and religious persecution, many Mediterranean families converted to other religions or intermarried members of other ethnic groups, thus carrying the MEFV gene with them. Before the institution of colchicine therapy, mortality due to nephrotic syndrome was almost universal by age 50 years in North African Sephardic Jewish patients. Among other Sephardic Jewish, Ashkenazi Jewish, and Armenian patients, amyloidosis was extremely rare. The mortality rate among Turkish patients was high, but this high rate may have represented selection bias. No pre–colchicine-therapy data are available from Arabic patients