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Fetal Macrosomia

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  • Fetal macrosomia

    The term macrosomia is used to describe a newborn with an excessive birth weight. A diagnosis of fetal macrosomia can be made only by measuring birth weight after delivery; therefore, the condition is confirmed only retrospectively, ie, after delivery of the neonate. Fetal macrosomia is encountered in up to 10% of deliveries.

  • Fetal macrosomia

    Fetal macrosomia is difficult to detect and diagnose during pregnancy. Possible signs and symptoms include: During prenatal visits, your health care provider might measure your fundal height the distance from the top of your uterus to your pubic bone. A fundal height that measures larger than expected could be a sign of fetal macrosomia, Too much amniotic fluid the fluid that surrounds and protects a baby during pregnancy might be a sign that your baby is larger than average.

  • Fetal macrosomia

    The pathophysiology of macrosomia is related to the associated maternal or fetal condition that accounts for its development. In general, poorly controlled diabetes, maternal obesity, and excessive maternal weight gain are all associated with macrosomia and have intermittent periods of hyperglycemia in common. Hyperglycemia in the fetus results in the stimulation of insulin, insulinlike growth factors, growth hormone, and other growth factors, which, in turn, stimulate fetal growth and deposition of fat and glycogen.

  • Fetal macrosomia

    Variation in the percentage of macrosomia in different ethnic groups has been observed independent of diabetes. In general, Hispanic women have a larger proportion of macrosomic newborns compared with white, African American, or Asian women.

Expert PPTs

Speaker PPTs

  • Moorkath Nandakumaran
    Hyperglycemia alters maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, chromium and vanadium in diabetic model human placental lobule in vitro : Implications for diabetes mellitu
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  • Yosef Yarden
    Classically, the 3’untranslated region (3’UTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3’UTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5’UTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3’UTR RNA (referred as I3’UTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3’UTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3’UTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3’UTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3’UTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3’UTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3’UTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990’s to 2000’s, world scientists found several 3’UTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3’UTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3’UTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3’UTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole.
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  • Simona Claudia Cambrea
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  • Guinchard Emmanuelle
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  • Dong Zheng
    The protective effect of Astaxanthin on fetal alcohol spectrum disorder in mice
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