Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Abnormal fluency or speed of movement (called dyskinesia) may involve excessive or involuntary movement (hyperkinesia) or slowed or absent voluntary movement (hypokinesia).
Fifty cases of Movement disorders were ascertained between 1971 and 2011. The mean age at diagnosis was 20 years, with an average time delay to definitive diagnosis of 24 months. At presentation, hepatic symptoms were predominant (39%), followed by mixed symptoms (hepatic and neuropsychiatric) (31%) and neuropsychiatric symptoms (25%).
A variety of other medications may be used to treat movement disorders, including antiepileptic drugs that stimulate GABA receptors in the brain's basal ganglia; neuroleptics that block dopamine D2-like receptors; Clonidine (Catapres) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, such as fluoxetine, commonly known as Prozac) for the treatment of tics; and channel modulators that affect the behavior of channels that transport small molecules such as potassium, sodium, or calcium across cell membranes.
Pallidotomy is a surgical procedure used to destroy part of the globus pallidus, which is thought to become overactive with certain disorders, such as Parkinson's disease. Although effective, these surgeries have significant risks, including paralysis, loss of vision, or loss of speech if the precise location of the brain is not targeted during surgery.