There are three major clinically and genetically distinct forms of neurofibromatosis: neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2 (NF1 and NF2) and schwannomatosis. NF1, also known as von Recklinghausen disease, is the most common type. The hallmarks of NF1 are the multiple café-au-lait macules and neurofibromas. The condition is called segmental NF1 when clinical features are limited to one area of the body.
Children with NF1 should be seen yearly by a health professional or team until after puberty and have a thorough clinical examination. The minimum prevalence is 1 in 5681 (17.6 per 100,000). We suggest a checklist is used to review nine important features; height, weight, head circumference, examination of the skin, blood pressure, ophthalmology examination (includes visual fields), examination of the spine, and for early / late puberty and consider referral to educational psychology. Educational authorities should identify all individuals with NF1 as they are at high risk of developing learning difficulties.