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Disease Pathophysiology: Syncope occurs due to global cerebral hypoperfusion. Brain parenchyma depends on adequate blood flow to provide a constant supply of glucose, the primary metabolic substrate. Brain tissue cannot store energy in the form of high-energy phosphates found elsewhere in the body; therefore, a cessation of cerebral perfusion lasting only 3-5 seconds can result in syncope.
Disease Treatment: The cornerstone of treatment is avoidance of triggers known to cause syncope in that person. However, a new development in psychological research has shown that patients show great reductions in vasovagal syncope through exposure-based exercises with therapists if the trigger is mental or emotional, e.g. sight of blood. However, if the trigger is a specific drug, then avoidance is the only treatment.
Statistics: Syncope is a common clinical manifestation of frequent observation throughout life. While reflex syncope predominates widely among the other forms in all ages, it is extremely common in youth, with a predominance of women who often have their first episode between 10 and 30 years. According to the Framingham study, there is a sharp increase in the incidence of syncope after 70 years, from 5.7 episodios/1,000 person-year in males aged 60-69 years to 11.1 / 1,000 in those aged 70-79 years.
Research: Govt of Ireland has taken up programme to research on vasovagal syncope and succeded to get positive results in near future for the better treatment.