Yersiniosis is a disease caused by Yersinia enterocolitica is a bacterial species in the family Enterobacteriaceae that most often causes enterocolitis, acute diarrhea, terminal ileitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and pseudoappendicitis but, if it spreads systemically, can also result in fatal sepsis. Yersiniosis is a relatively uncommon infection contracted through the consumption of undercooked meat products (especially pork), unpasteurized milk, or contaminated water.Usually, someone with an infection caused by Yersinia bacteria recovers within a few days without medical treatment.Infection with Y. enterocolitica can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the age of the person infected, therefore it's often referred to as "monkey of diseases".
Common symptoms in children are fever, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, which is often bloody. Symptoms typically develop 4 to 7 days after exposure and may last 1 to 3 weeks or longer. In older children and adults, right-sided abdominal pain and fever may be the predominant symptoms, and may be confused with appendicitis. In a small proportion of cases, complications such as skin rash, joint pains, ileitis, erythema nodosum, and sometimes septicemia, acute arthritisor the spread of bacteria to the bloodstream (bacteremia) can occur.
Treatment for gastroenteritis due to Y. enterocolitica is not needed in the majority of cases. Severe infections with systemic involvemenet (sepsis and bacteremia) often requires aggressive antibiotic therapy; the drugs of choice are doxycycline and an aminoglycoside. Alternatives include cefotaxime, fluoroquinolones, and co-trimoxazole.
Y enterocolitica has been isolated in patients in many countries worldwide, but the infection appears to occur predominantly in cooler climates, being much more common in northern Europe, Scandinavia, and Japan. Most isolates reported from Ireland and Europe are O:3 and O:9 serotypes. The O:3 serotype is also common in Japan. Isolation of Y enterocolitica in developing countries is uncommon.