Statistics: Of 3,465 (59%) patients without heart failure on admission (Killip class I), 89 (2.6%) developed cardiogenic shock during their hospital stay. This represented 24% of all cases of in-hospital cardiogenic shock in the entire group. Cardiogenic shock developed more than 24 hours after admission in 66% of cases. All but three patients with cardiogenic shock died whereas a 5% in-hospital mortality was found among patients without cardiogenic shock. Independent predictors for in-hospital shock were age (for a 10-year increment, adjusted relative odds [RO] = 2.45, 90% confidence interval [CI] = 1.50 to 4.02); female gender (RO = 1.51, 90% CI = 0.91 to 2.50); history of angina (RO = 2.64, 90% CI = 1.36 to 3.76); history of stroke (RO = 2.12, 90% CI = 1.26 to 6.35); peripheral vascular disease (RO = 1.99, 90% CI = 0.95 to 4.18); peak lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) greater than four times the normal (RO = 3.16, 90% CI = 1.79 to 5.57); and hyperglycemia on admission (RO = 3.52, 90% CI = 2.13 to 5.84). Patients with six risk factors (excluding LDH values) had an estimated probability of 35% for developing in-hospital cardiogenic shock.
Treatment: Somatostatin analogues have been the treatment of choice in symptomatic patients with carcinoid tumors, but more recent studies have indicated a cytostatic effect of somatostatin analogues. Tumor-targeted radioactive treatment based on somatostatin analogues is now under clinical evaluation. Preliminary data indicate interesting clinical potentials. If metastasis of carcinoid tumor has occurred and in cases where surgical excision is not suitable, consider treatment with currently recommended chemotherapy. Chemotherapeutic agents currently used in clinical trials to palliate metastatic carcinoid disease include the following: Alkylating agents, Doxorubicin, 5-Fluorouracil, Dacarbazine, Actinomycin D, Cisplatin, Etoposide, Streptozotocin, Interferon alfa, Somatostatin analogs with a radioactive load • A combination of the agents listed above is typically used.
Research: Cells of the human bronchial carcinoid cell line NCI-H727 and the human pancreatic carcinoid cell line BON-1 were treated with increasing concentrations of imatinib using standard procedures to assess in vitro growth-inhibitory activity. A clinical trial using a two-stage phase II design to assess the response rate and safety profile of imatinib at a dose of 400 mg given twice daily in patients with advanced carcinoid tumors was completed. In both cell lines, there was a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect. The clinical trial enrolled 27 evaluable patients. Median duration on trial was 16 weeks. One patient had a partial response, 17 had stable disease, and 9 had progressive disease by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria. Median progression-free survival time was 24 weeks. Median overall survival is 36 months. Seven patients who achieved a biochemical response had a superior progression-free survival time compared with patients without biochemical response (115 weeks compared with 24 weeks; P = 0.003). An increase in plasma basic fibroblast growth factor was associated with a shorter progression-free survival duration (P = 0.02) Our data suggest that imatinib is active in vitro and has a modest clinical activity in carcinoid patients. Changes in tumor markers may help select patients who are likely to benefit from therapy.
Statistics: Of the 11,427 cases analyzed, the average age was 60.9 years, and 54.2% were female. The overall incidence rates for carcinoid tumors have increased significantly over the past 25 years, although rates for some sites have decreased (eg, appendix). The gastrointestinal tract accounted for 54.5% of the tumors. Within the gastrointestinal tract, the small intestine was the most common site (44.7%), followed by the rectum (19.6%), appendix (16.7%), colon (10.6%), and stomach (7.2%). The 5-year survival rates for the most common gastrointestinal sites were stomach (75.1%), small intestine (76.1%), appendix (76.3%), and rectum (87.5%).