Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a condition in which the heart's ability to pump blood is decreased because the heart's main pumping chamber, the left ventricle, is enlarged and weakened. The right ventricle may also be dilated and dysfunctional. Dilated cardiomyopathy is the third most common cause of heart failure and the most frequent reason for heart transplantation.
Many people with dilated cardiomyopathy have no symptoms or only minor symptoms. Other people develop symptoms, which may progress and worsen as heart function worsens. Heart failure symptoms include shortness of breath and fatigue, swelling of the lower extremities, fatigue, weight gain, fainting, Palpitations, Dizziness or lightheadedness. Blood clots can form in the dilated left ventricle as a result of pooling of the blood and when breaks off can lodge in an artery causing stroke.
Drug classes used include many types of drugs like Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), Beta-blockers, Aldosterone antagonists, Cardiac glycosides, Diuretics, Vasodilators, Antiarrhythmics, Human B-type natriuretic peptide, Inotropic agents. Surgical options for patients with disease refractory to medical therapy include Left ventricular assist devices, Cardiac resynchronization therapy, automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, ventricular restoration surgery, heart transplantation.