Encephalitis is an acute inflammation of the brain. Encephalitis with meningitis is known as meningo encephalitis. Symptoms include headache, fever, confusion, drowsiness, and fatigue.
Further symptoms include seizures or convulsions, tremors, hallucinations, stroke, and memory problems. Adult patients with encephalitis present with acute onset of fever, headache, confusion, and sometimes seizures. Younger children or infants may present irritability, poor appetite and fever. Neurological examinations usually reveal a drowsy or confused patient. Stiff neck, due to the irritation of the meninges covering the brain, indicates that the patient has either meningitis or meningo encephalitis. The signs and symptoms of tick born encephalitis are: The virus can infect the brain (encephalitis), the meninges (meningitis) or both (meningoencephalitis). In general, mortality is 1% to 2%, with deaths occurring 5 to 7 days after the onset of neurologic signs. In dogs, the disease also manifests as a neurological disorder with signs varying from tremors to seizures and death. In ruminants, neurological disease is also present, and animals may refuse to eat, appear lethargic, and also develop respiratory signs. The PIX virus has the lowest prevalence and, it was isolated in only a few cases, one being from a laboratory infection. Wild birds are the main hosts for all these viruses, except MUC, whose major hosts are rodents.
The symptoms presented by infected people were generally a mild febrile illness. Although, jaundice was observed in two individuals from whom SLE was isolated. A comparison of the clinical symptoms presented by the patients in the Amazon Region and other areas of America, especially in the USA is made. At that time, of 500 horses that were examined 61% were positive to EEE by HI and of them 8.2% died. On the other hand, SLE has caused four epizootics in a forest near Belem. Wild birds and sentinel monkeys were infected, but no human cases were reported.
Advanced Treatment Methods Advanced treatment is as follows: Antiviral medications (if virus is cause), Antibiotics, (if bacteria is cause), Steroids are used to reduce brain swell, Sedatives for restlessness, Acetaminophen for fever, Physical therapy. The disease is incurable once manifested, so there is no specific drug therapy for TBE. Symptomatic brain damage requires hospitalization and supportive care based on syndrome severity. Anti-inflammatory drugs, such as corticosteroids, may be considered under specific circumstances for symptomatic relief. Tracheal intubation and respiratory support may be necessary. Prevention includes non-specific (tick-bite prevention, tick checks) and specific prophylaxis in the form of a vaccine. TBE immunoglobulin is no longer used. Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine is very effective and available in many disease endemic areas and in travel clinics.