Endometriosis is a disease in which tissue that normally grows inside the uterus grows outside it. The main symptoms are pelvic pain and infertility. Nearly half of those affected have chronic pelvic pain, while in 70% pain occurs during menstruation. Pain with sex is also common. Infertility occurs in up to half of women affected. Less common symptoms include urinary or bowel symptoms. About 25% of women have no symptoms. Endometriosis can have both social and psychological effects. The cause is not entirely clear. Risk factors include having a family history of the condition. Most often the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and tissue around the uterus and ovaries are affected; however, in rare cases it may also occur in other parts of the body. The areas of endometriosis bleed each month which results in inflammation and scarring. The growths due to endometriosis are not cancer.
Diagnosis is usually based on symptom in combination with medical imaging. Biopsy is the most sure method of diagnosis. Other causes of similar symptoms include irritable bowel syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and fibromyalgia. A major symptom of endometriosis is pain, mostly in the lower abdomen, lower back, and pelvic area. The amount of pain a woman feels is not necessarily related to the extent or stage (1 through 4) of endometriosis. Some women will have little or no pain despite having extensive endometriosis affecting large areas or endometriosis with scarring. On the other hand, women may have severe pain even though they have only a few small areas of endometriosis Symptoms of endometriosis can include: Painful, sometimes disabling menstrual cramps, pain may get worse over time, Chronic pain, Painful intercourse, Painful bowel movements or painful urination, Heavy menstrual periods, Nausea and vomiting, Premenstrual or inter menstrual spotting, Infertility and subfertility. Endometriosis may lead to fallopian tube obstruction
Endometriosis is estimated to occur in roughly 6–10% of women. Endometriosis can affect any female, from premenarche to postmenopause, regardless of race or ethnicity or whether or not they have had children. It is primarily a disease of the reproductive years. The number of women affected is between 6–10%. It is more common in women with infertility and chronic pelvic pain (35–50%). Exercise and avoiding large amount of alcohol may also be preventative. There is no cure for endometriosis, but a number of treatments may improve symptoms. This may include pain medication, hormonal treatments, or surgery. The recommended pain medication is usually an NSAID such as naproxen. Taking the active component of the birth control pill continuously or an intrauterine device with progestogen may also be useful. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist may improve the ability of those who are infertile to get pregnant.