Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves food and liquids from the throat to the stomach. The most common types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. Squamous cell carcinoma begins in flat cells lining the esophagus.
Adenocarcinoma begins in cells that make and release mucus and other fluids. Smoking and heavy alcohol use increase the risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett esophagus may increase the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Esophageal cancer is often diagnosed at an advanced stage because there are no early signs or symptoms. The most common presenting symptom of esophageal cancer is dysphagia.
Esophagogastroduodenoscopy allows direct visualization and biopsies of the tumor, while endoscopic ultrasonography is the most sensitive test for determining the depth of penetration of the tumor and the presence of enlarged periesophageal lymph nodes. In patients who appear to have localized esophageal cancer, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning may be useful as part of the baseline staging. Other imaging studies may be valuable in selected patients.
Esophageal cancer is the seventh leading cause of cancer death worldwide. In some regions, such as areas of northern Iran, some areas of southern Russia, and northern China, the incidence of esophageal carcinoma may be as high as 800 cases per 100,000 population. Unlike in the United States, squamous cell carcinoma is responsible for 95% of all esophageal cancers worldwide. Surgery has traditionally been the treatment for esophageal carcinoma. The first successful resection was performed in 1913 by Torek. In the 1930s, Ohsawa in Japan and Marshall in the United States were the first to perform successful single-stage transthoracic esophagectomies with continent reconstruction. Nonoperative therapy is usually reserved for patients who are not candidates for surgery because of clinical conditions or advanced disease.
The ideal treatment for localized esophageal cancer is sometimes debated across practice cultures and subspecialties. Defendants of surgical treatment argue that resection is the only treatment modality to offer curative intent; defendants of the nonsurgical approach claim that esophagectomy has a prohibitive index of mortality and that esophageal cancer is an incurable disease.
Genetics and Epigenetics, Systems biology, SLAC ( Stem cell biology, longevity /Ageing and cancer biology) with a focus on chromatin remodelers w/o the stressors, particularly radiation, heat shock, and nutrient deprivation by using both C.elegans model organisms and mammalian systems.
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) induced cancer cell death may be immunogenic resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy when combined with immune-modulating therapy PPT Version |
Detection of a negative correlation between prescription of Chinese herbal products containing coumestrol, genistein or daidzein and risk of subsequent endometrial cancer among tamoxifentreated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan between 1998 and 2008: A population-based study PPT Version |
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole. PPT Version |
PEGylated-thymoquinone-nanoparticle mediated retardation of breast cancer cell migration by deregulation of cytoskeletal actin polymerization through miR-34a PPT Version |
Prognostic value of ER, PR, and HER2 breast cancer biomarkers and AJCCâs TNM staging system on overall survival of Caucasian females with breast cancer: An institutionâs 10 year experience PPT Version |
Antiproliferative effect of main dietary phytosterols and/or Î²-cryptoxanthin in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells through cytosolic Ca2+ - and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis PPT Version |
Effectiveness of Ayurvedic treatment in alleviating side-effects of radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer patients and its relationship with improvement in immune status of the host PPT Version |