Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells in the urine. It may be benign. If white blood cells are found in addition to red blood cells, then it is a signal of urinary tract infection. Types: Hematuria is of two types 1. Microscopic hematuria - Small amounts of blood can be seen on light microscopy or urinanalysis. 2. Macroscopic hematuria –Gross hematuria Diagnosis: Sometimes the cause of hematuria can be elucidated solely on the basis of the medical history and urine testing, or urinalysis.
Causes Urinary tract infection with bacteria. The vast majority of UTIs are caused by Escherichia coli, with a smaller percentage due toKlebsiella,pneumonia and Staphylococcus saprophyticus , Nephrolithiasis,stones in the kidney, bladder or ureter ,Trauma. Cancer of the kidney, prostate or bladder Other causes includes: Glomerular bleeding: eg: IgA nephropathy ("Berger's disease"), Alport syndrome, thin basement membrane disease ,Sickle cell disease.
Statistics Persistent asymptomatic isolated microscopic hematuria was diagnosed in 3690 of 1,203,626 eligible individuals (0.3%). During 21.88 (SD, 6.74) years of follow-up, treated ESRD developed in 26 individuals (0.70%) with and 539 (0.045%) without persistent asymptomatic isolated microscopic hematuria, yielding incidence rates of 34.0 and 2.05 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, and a crude HR of 19.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 13.1-28.9).