Lichen sclerosus is an uncommon condition that creates patchy, white skin that's thinner than normal. Lichen sclerosus can affect skin anywhere on your body. But it most often involves skin of the vulva, foreskin of the penis or skin around the anus. Inflammation and altered fibroblast function in the papillary dermis leads to fibrosis of the upper dermis. Genital skin and mucosa are affected most frequently, but extragenital lichen sclerosus does occur, and even rare oral presentations are reported.
The role that hypoxia and ischemia have in the initial cellular and vascular damage is supported by the finding of increased glut-1 and decreased vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in affected skin. Forty-five relevant papers were identified, 21 clinic-based and 24 population studies. All but one of the population studies was deficient. One study, while having some defects, was probably sufficiently valid to permit the findings to be regarded as useful. An overall age-standardized prevalence of 1.27% (0.96% in men and 1.57% in women) was calculated from a research paper.