Disease pathophysiology: Syphilis is a Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) caused by the spirochete bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum. The primary route of transmission is through sexual contact; it may also be transmitted from mother to fetus during pregnancy or at birth, resulting in congenital syphilis. Other human diseases caused by related Treponema pallidum include yaws (subspecies pertenue), pinta (subspecies carateum) and bejel (subspecies endemicum).
Disease Statistics: In 2011, 428 Israelis (283 males; 145 females) were newly diagnosed with the HIV virus out of approximately 2.7 million new cases worldwide. Though this is a relatively small number compared to the global rate of infection, it represents the highest figure of new cases in Israel since at least 2000 when just over 300 new cases were reported. In 2010, 411 Israelis (278 males; 133 females) were newly diagnosed with HIV. 28 Israelis (20 males; 8 females) were also diagnosed with AIDS in 2011, the Jewish State's highest number since 2002 when 32 new cases of AIDS were reported. In 2010, there were only 19 new cases of AIDS in Israel.
Israel's first documented case of HIV/AIDS was in 1981. Between 1981 and 2011, an approximate total of 7,000 new cases of both diseases have been diagnosed. The Israel Ministry of Health estimates at the end of the 2011 calendar year, that there were 5,658 HIV carriers and an additional 521 AIDS patients living in Israel. 855 citizens who were diagnosed with AIDS from 1981 to 2011 either died or left the country.Treatment: The first choice for the treatment for syphilis is intramuscular benzathine penicillin G Doxycycline and tetracycline in alternative choice to those who are allergic to pencillins Resistance to macrolides, rifampin, and clindamycin is often present. Ceftriaxone, a third-generation cephalosporin antibiotic, may be as effective as penicillin-based treatment. It is recommended that a treated person avoid sex until the sores are healed. Major Research: Major Research on Syphilis is conducted by CDC.