Typhoid fever usually is caused by Salmonellae typhi bacteria. A total of 57.4% of the cases were acquired abroad. The incidence of endemic enteric fever was 2.7 times higher in Arabs than in Jews. In Arabs, Salmonella Typhi was the causative agent in all cases, and almost all cases were endemic. In Jews, most cases were imported, with a decrease in imported S. typhi, cases and an increase in imported S. Paratyphi A cases. In Israel, the change was even more marked, with an annual incidence of 90 per 100 000 in the early 1950s that had dropped to 0.23 per 100 000 in 2003; of the remaining cases, 57% were acquired abroad.
Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics which kill the Salmonella bacteria. Prior to the use of antibiotics, the fatality rate was 20%. Death occurred from overwhelming infection, pneumonia, intestinal bleeding, or intestinal perforation. With antibiotics and supportive care, mortality has been reduced to 1%-2%. With appropriate antibiotic therapy, there is usually improvement within one to two days and recovery within seven to 10 days. Comparative genomics study for identification of putative drug targets in Salmonella typhi Type 2.