It is defined as the absence of menses for three months in a woman with previously normal menstruation or nine months for women with a history of oligomenorrhoea.Amenorrhoea (BE), amenorrhea (AmE), or amenorrhœa, is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age. Disease statistics if serum prolactin is high, it should be remeasured; if serum FSH is high, it should be remeasured monthly at least twice. Amenorrhea with high FSH levels suggests ovarian dysfunction; amenorrhea with low FSH levels suggests hypothalamic or pituitary dysfunction. If patients have secondary amenorrhea without virilization and have normal prolactin and FSH levels and normal thyroid function, a trial of estrogen and a progestin to try to stimulate withdrawal bleeding can be done.
Clinicians should note vital signs and body composition and build, including height and weight, and should calculate body mass index (BMI). Secondary sexual characteristics are evaluated; breast and pubic hair development are staged using Tanner’s method. If axillary and pubic hair is present, adrenarche has occurred. With the patient seated, clinicians should check for breast secretion by applying pressure to all sections of the breast, beginning at the base and moving toward the nipple. Galactorrhea (breast milk secretion not temporally associated with childbirth) may be observed.
Treatments vary based on the underlying condition. Key issues are problems of surgical correction if appropriate and oestrogen therapy if oestrogen levels are low. For those who do not plan to have biological children, treatment may be unnecessary if the underlying cause of the amenorrhoea is not threatening to their health. However, in the case of athletic amenorrhoea, deficiencies in estrogen and leptin often simultaneously result in bone loss, potentially leading to osteoporosis. "Athletic" amenorrhoea which is part of the female athlete triad is treated by eating more and decreasing the amount and intensity of exercise.