Stenosis means narrowing of an opening, such as a heart valve. Stenosis of the mitral valve limits the forward flow of blood from the left atrium to the left ventricle. This may cause a back-up of blood and fluid in the lungs. Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients diagnosed with mitral stenosis don't recall ever having the illness.
Causes: Diagnosed with mitral stenosis don’t recall ever having the illness. During rheumatic fever, the valve becomes Mitral stenosis most commonly develops many years after a person has had rheumatic fever, although many patients inflamed. Over time, the leaflets of the inflamed valve stick together and become scarred, rigid and thickened, limiting its ability to open completely.
Symptoms: Many of the symptoms of mitral stenosis, such as shortness of breath and fatigue, result from a back-up of blood in the lungs. Other symptoms of mitral stenosis may include quick weight gain; weakness; dizziness; swelling in the ankles, feet and/or abdomen (edema); and/or heart palpitations (irregular heartbeat).
Treatment: A balloon valvotomy is the preferred treatment for mitral valve stenosis. It is a procedure that widens the mitral valve so that blood flows more easily through the heart. A balloon valvotomy is a minimally invasive procedure. A doctor uses a thin flexible tube (catheter) that is inserted through an artery in the groin or arm and threaded into the heart. When the tube reaches the narrowed mitral valve, a balloon device located on the tip of the catheter is quickly inflated. The narrowed or fused mitral valve leaflets are separated and stretched open as the balloon presses against them. This process increases the size of the mitral valve opening and allows more blood to flow from the left atrium into the left ventricle.
Statistics: Transient left ventricular apical ballooning typically affects women, and the clinical presentation is comparable to acute coronary syndrome with chest pain or sudden dyspnoea, changes in ECG and elevated cardiac enzymes in the absence of significant coronary stenosis, with complete resolution of wall-motion abnormalities in a period of days or weeks. This syndrome is triggered by marked psychological or physiological stress. Several pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed, such as cathecolamine-mediated cardiotoxicity, abnormalities in coronary microvascular function and multivessel coronary vasospasm. The highest incidence of transient left ventricular apical ballooning is in the Japanese population, but it has been recently identified also in the USA and Europe. Treatment is empirical and supportive. The prognosis is generally favourable, although some deaths have been reported, usually the result of irreversible cardiogenic shock, refractory ventricular arrhythmias, or other catastrophic cardiovascular event. The cardiovascular benefits of regular physical activity are well established (J. Sci. Med. Sport,7, 2004, 6). James Fixx wrote the best-selling book on running entitled The Complete Book of Running (1977), which led to an increase in popularity. However, when Fixx collapsed and died suddenly while running in 1984, people began to consider the adverse effects of sport on cardiac conditions. Going back in time, in 490 BC Phidippides, a young Greek messenger, ran 26.2 miles from Marathon to Athens delivering the news of the Greek victory over the Persians, and immediately collapsed and died. This is probably the first recorded incident of sudden death of an athlete running a marathon. According to Noakes (Med. Sci. Sports Exerc.,19, 1987, 187), one of the earliest reports on the association between running and cardiac risk was published in 1909, which claimed that school cross-country races over one mile for boys below the age of 19 years were totally inappropriate, and that the associated stress will cause damage in the heart and other organs. Death in athletes is highly publicized and has a substantial emotional impact on the community at large, given that athletes are perceived as the healthiest segment of society.