Pathophysiology: This topic talks about the testing, diagnosis, and treatment of cervical cancer. For general information about abnormal Pap test results, see the topic Abnormal Pap Test. Cervical cancer occurs when abnormal cells on the cervix grow out of control. The cervix is the lower part of the uterus that opens into thevagina. Cervical cancer can often be successfully treated when it's found early. It is usually found at a very early stage through a Pap test. Cervical cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide. But in the United States and other countries where cervicalcancer screening is routine, this cancer is not so common.1 Most cervical cancer is caused by a virus called human papillomavirus, or HPV. You can get HPV by having sexual contact with someone who has it. There are many types of the HPV virus. Not all types of HPVcause cervical cancer. Some of them cause genital warts, but other types may not cause any symptoms. Most adults have been infected with HPV at some time. An infection may go away on its own. But sometimes it can cause genital warts or lead to cervical cancer. That's why it's important for women to have regular Pap tests. A Pap test can find changes in cervical cells before they turn into cancer. If you treat these cell changes, you may prevent cervical cancer. Abnormal cervical cell changes rarely cause symptoms. But you may have symptoms if those cell changes grow into cervical cancer.Symptoms of cervical cancer may include: • Bleeding from the vagina that is not normal, such as bleeding between menstrual periods, after sex, or after menopause. • Pain in the lower belly or pelvis. • Pain during sex. • Vaginal discharge that isn't normal. As part of your regular pelvic exam, you should have a Pap test. During a Pap test, the doctor scrapes a small sample of cells from the surface of the cervix to look for cell changes. If a Pap test shows abnormal cell changes, your doctor may do other tests to look for precancerous or cancer cells on your cervix.
Symptoms Cervical cancer typically does not cause symptoms until its later stages, so cervical CIS may by asymptomatic. Because of this, regular Pap smears are important to catch any abnormal cell changes early.
DIAGNOSIS: A Pap smear can collect abnormal cells that are then identified in a lab. An HPV test may be performed on the sample to check for the virus and to ascertain whether high-risk or low-risk strains are present. A colposcopy is an in-office procedure that allows your doctor to view your cervix with a special magnifying tool. A solution is applied to the surface of your cervix to illuminate any abnormal cells, and your doctor can then take a small piece of tissue called a biopsy. This can be sent to a lab for a more definitive diagnosis.
STATISTICS: An estimated 2,927 new cases of cervical cancer occurred in Italy in 2005 (crude incidence 9.7/100,000; world age-standardized incidence 6.0/100,000). The estimated numbers of new cases by FIGO stage were: FIGO I, 1,927; FIGO II, 556; FIGO III, 259; and FIGO IV, 185. Costs for the most frequent procedures were estimated as: Euro 6,041 for radical hysterectomy or other surgery; Euro 4,901 for radio-chemotherapy; Euro 1,588 for brachytherapy; and Euro 3,795 for palliative chemotherapy. Mean management costs for incident cases (including 10 years of follow-up) were estimated at: FIGO I, Euro 6,024; FIGO II, Euro 10,572; FIGO III, Euro 11,367; FIGO IV, Euro 8707; and Euro 5,854 for the terminal phase (1 month). The total direct management cost was estimated at Euro 28.3 million per year.
Genetics and Epigenetics, Systems biology, SLAC ( Stem cell biology, longevity /Ageing and cancer biology) with a focus on chromatin remodelers w/o the stressors, particularly radiation, heat shock, and nutrient deprivation by using both C.elegans model organisms and mammalian systems.
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) induced cancer cell death may be immunogenic resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy when combined with immune-modulating therapy PPT Version |
Detection of a negative correlation between prescription of Chinese herbal products containing coumestrol, genistein or daidzein and risk of subsequent endometrial cancer among tamoxifentreated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan between 1998 and 2008: A population-based study PPT Version |
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole. PPT Version |
PEGylated-thymoquinone-nanoparticle mediated retardation of breast cancer cell migration by deregulation of cytoskeletal actin polymerization through miR-34a PPT Version |
Prognostic value of ER, PR, and HER2 breast cancer biomarkers and AJCCâs TNM staging system on overall survival of Caucasian females with breast cancer: An institutionâs 10 year experience PPT Version |
Antiproliferative effect of main dietary phytosterols and/or Î²-cryptoxanthin in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells through cytosolic Ca2+ - and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis PPT Version |
Effectiveness of Ayurvedic treatment in alleviating side-effects of radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer patients and its relationship with improvement in immune status of the host PPT Version |