alexa Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever | Italy| PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widespread tick-borne viral disease. The virus is a member of the Bunyaviridae family of RNA viruses. It is a zoonotic disease carried by several domestic and wild animals. While clinical disease is rare in infected animals, it is severe in infected humans, with a mortality rate of 10-40%. Outbreaks of illness are usually attributable to Hyalomma tick bites or contact with infected animals or people. The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals. Human-to-human transmission can occur resulting from close contact with the blood, secretions, organs or other bodily fluids of infected persons. The symptoms include mood instability, agitation, mental confusion and throat petechiae, then soon nosebleeds, rainbow urine and vomiting, and black stools. The liver becomes swollen and painful. Disseminated intravascular coagulation may occur as well as acute kidney failure and shock, and sometimes acute respiratory distress syndrome. Patients usually begin to show signs of recovery after 9–10 days from when the symptoms appear, however 30% of the cases result in death on the second week of the illness.
    Crimea-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a tick-borne viral zoonosis with the potential of human-to-human transmission. The disease occurs in extensive areas in Asia, South-eastern Europe and Africa. Haemorrhagic manifestations constitute a prominent symptom of the late disease stage, with case fatality rates from 9 to 50%. The recent increase in the number of cases in Eastern Europe and the potential for nosocomial outbreaks indicate the advisability of diagnosis in every patient hospitalized in Italy with haemorrhagic fever.

  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    General supportive care with treatment of symptoms is the main approach to managing CCHF in people. The antiviral drug ribavirin has been used to treat CCHF infection with apparent benefit. Both oral and intravenous formulations seem to be effective.
    The ongoing researches in Italy on Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever include: Antagonistic antiviral activity between IFN-lambda and IFN-alpha against lethal Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in vitro, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever: an enemy at the gates.

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