It is the condition in which feaces are discharged from the bowels frequently and in a liquid form.It is also the condition of having at least three loose or liquid bowel movements each day. It often lasts for a few days and can result in dehydration due to fluid loss.
Symptoms: 1.urination 2.loss of skin color 3.fast heart rate 4.decrease of responsiveness as it becomes more severe. The most common cause is an infection of the intestine due to either a virus,or parasite; a condition known as gastroentirites.These infections are often acquired from food or water that has been contaminated by stool, or directly from another person who is infected.
DIAGNOSIS: 1.In infants 2. Moderate or severe diarrhea in young children 3.Associated with blood 4.Continues for more than two days 5.Associated non-cramping abdominal pain, fever, weight loss, etc. 6.In travelers 7.In food handlers, because of the potential to infect others; 8.In institutions such as hospitals, child care centers, or geriatric and convalescent homes.
Treament: In children, diarrhoea will usually pass within five to seven days and will rarely last longer than two weeks. In adults, diarrhoea usually improves within two to four days, although some infections can last a week or more.in this stage we have to take fluids ,oral rehydration salts and is mainly treated with antidiarrhoeal medicines loperamide. Antibiotics may be recommended if you have severe diarrhoea and a specific type of bacteria has been identified as the cause.
Epidemiology: : Enteropathogens were identified in 59% of children with diarrhea and in 10.4% of asymptomatic controls. The agents mainly associated with disease were rotavirus (23.6%), Salmonella (19.2%) and Campylobacter (7.9%). Rotavirus was significantly more frequent among children observed as inpatients whereas Campylobacter was significantly more common in out-patients. Infections with diarrheagenic E. coli, Shigella flexneri, Yersinia enterocolitica, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were observed in a limited number of patients.