Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), also known as intraductal carcinoma.It is a is a pre-cancerous or non-invasive cancerous lesion of the breast. In this condition abnormal cells are found in the lining of one or more milk ducts in the breast. In situ means "in place".
Symptoms: It may cause: A lump near the breast,a change in the size or shape,Nipple discharge,pitting of the breast and a chang in the way the skin of the breast ,areola.
Diagnosis: 80% of cases in the United States are diagnosed by mammography screening.
Treament: Surgical removal, with or without additional radiation therapy or tamoxifen, is the recommended treatment for DCIS. Surgery may be either a breast-conserving lumpectomy or a mastectomy. amoxifen may be used as hormonal therapy if the cells show estrogen receptor positivity. Chemotherapy is not needed for DCIS since the disease is noninvasive.
Epidemology: Cases of DCIS have increased 5 fold between 1983 and 2003 in the United States due to the introduction of screening mammography. In 2009 about 62,000 cases were diagnosed.