Dural arteriovenous fistulas are abnormal connections between an nartery ad the tough covering over the brain or spinal cord (dura) and a draining vein. Abnormal passageways between arteries and veins (arteriovenous fistulas) may occur in the brain, spinal cord or other areas of your body. Symptoms: Some of the symptoms which may include are headache,ringing in ears,stroke like symptoms and visual problems. Diagnosis: Varices are graded using a variety of criteria including size,coiour,location and stigmata of bleeding.In addition endoscopy is routinely used for the therapeutic management of varices.paraoesophageal varices which lie outside the oesophageal wall are however not visualized during endoscopy.
Treament: One approach used for treatment is embolization. Embolization refers to the passage of an embolus within the bloodstream. It may be pathological, for example as a surgical complication, or therapeutic, as a treatment for bleeding or some types of cancer by deliberately blocking blood vessels.
Epidemology: Their clinical presentation is quite variable, with symptoms dependent on their location and venous drainage pattern. Lesions with cortical venous drainage. However, have the highest risk of causing the most significant morbidity and mortality. This places an emphasis on promptly suspecting and diagnosing these lesions.