Dwarfism occurs when an individual person or animal is short in stature resulting from a medical condition caused by slow growth.In humans dwarfism is sometimes defined as an adult height of less than 4 feet 10 inches.
A very short trunk,a short neck,shortened arms and legs,average size hands and feet,broad rounded chest,opening in the roof of the mouth,instability of the neck bones,slightly flattened cheekbones,vision and hearing problems,an adult height around 4 feet.
Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent or lessen some of the problems associated with dwarfism. People with dwarfism related to growth hormone deficiency can be treated with growth hormone.Treament which may include: Surgery to remove tonsils or adenoids,surgery to widen the spinal canal,physical therapy,back braces to improve curvature of the spine,orthodontic treatment to relieve crowding of teeth caused by a small jaw.
During an initial medical evaluation of shortness, the absence of disproportion and other clues listed above usually indicates causes other than bone dysplasias. Extreme shortness with completely normal proportions sometimes indicates growth hormone deficiency (pituitary dwarfism). Dwarfism is often diagnosed in childhood on the basis of visible symptoms. A physical examination can usually suffice to diagnose certain types of dwarfism, but genetic testing and diagnostic imaging may be used to determine the exact condition.
Epidemology: In children younger than 4 years, death most commonly occurs due to brain stem compression, which causes sudden death. In individuals aged 5-24 years, central nervous system and respiratory abnormalities are the common causes of death. In persons aged 25-54 years, cardiovascular problems are the most frequent causes of death.