It is a of abnormal muscle tone resulting in muscular spasm and abnormal posture, typically due to neurological disease or a side effect of drug therapy. Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder in which sustained muscle contractions cause twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal postures. The movements may resemble a tremor.
Symptoms: Subtle facial or jaw spasms, or difficulty chewing may suggest early face or jaw dystonia. Changes in the cadence or pitch of speech may be early signs of laryngeal dystonia/spasmodic dysphonia. Mild jerky head movements, stiff neck, or local neck discomfort may occur in the early stages of cervical dystonia.
Treament: There are a number of treatment techniques that can control the involuntary movements and spasms of dystonia, including medication, physiotherapy, and in some cases, surgery. There are four main types of treatment for dystonia. They are: botulinum toxin medication physiotherapy surgery, including deep brain stimulation (DBS)
Diagnosis: It is diagnosed by different ways they are: 1.urine and blood test. 2.genetic testing. 3.magnetic resonance imaging.
Epidemology: The prevalence estimates for primary dystonia range from two to 50 cases per million for early-onset dystonia and from 30 to 7320 cases per million for late-onset dystonia. 600 per million for late-onset dystonia in northern England, and 3000 per million for late-onset dystonia in the Italian population over age 50 years.