Ebola virus disease (EVD), formerly known as Ebola haemorrhagic fever, is a severe, often fatal illness in humans. The virus is transmitted to people from wild animals and spreads in the human population through human-to-human transmission. The average EVD case fatality rate is around 50%.
Symptoms: A person infected with Ebola virus will typically develop a fever, a headache, joint and muscle pain, a sore throat, and intense muscle weakness. These symptoms start suddenly between 2 and 21 days after becoming infected. Diarrhoea, vomiting, a rash, stomach pain and impaired kidney and liver function follow.
Diagnosis: Alhough there are no approved specific therapies for Ebola virus disease, it is essential to make the diagnosis as early as possible, in order to initiate supportive measures before the development of irreversible shock and to institute infection control procedures. Whether Ebola virus disease is initially considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient with fever and flu-like symptoms will vary markedly with the circumstances.
Treament: There's currently no licensed treatment or vaccine for Ebola virus disease, although potential new vaccines and drug therapies are being developed and tested. Any area affected by an outbreak should be immediately quarantined, and patients confirmed to have Ebola virus disease should be treated in isolation in intensive care. ZMapp is an experimental treatment that can be tried, although it has not yet been tested on humans for safety or effectiveness. The product is a combination of three different antibodies that bind to the protein of the Ebola virus.
Epidemology: The epidemiology of pertussis in Italy over the last 125 years to identify disease trends and factors that could have influenced these trends.Described mortality rates (1888?2012), case fatality rates (1925?2012), cumulative incidence rates (1925?2013) and age-specific incidence rates (1974?2013). Pertussis mortality decreased from 42.5 per 100,000 population in 1890 to no reported pertussis-related death after 2002. Incidence decreased from 86.3 per100,000 in 1927 to 1 per 100,000 after 2008. Pertussis mortality decreased before the introduction of immunisation.