It is a condition in which the air sacs of the lungs are damaged and enlarged, causing breathlessness. "smoking can lead to serious lung diseases such as emphysema" It is a condition in which air is abnormally present within the body tissues.
Symptoms: Symptoms of emphysema vary from mild to severe and include shortness of breath (dyspnea), cough, and difficulty breathing upon exertion. Emphysema is a chronic (long lasting), progressive condition, which means the symptoms usually worsen over time.
Diagnosis: Chest X-Ray , Chest X-rays can help confirm a diagnosis of emphysema and rule out other lung conditions.Arterial Blood Gases Analysis , These blood tests measure how well your lungs transfer oxygen to your bloodstream and remove carbon dioxide.
Treament: Medications such as Bronchodilators,inhaled steroids and antibiotics. Therapy such as pulmonary rehabilitation,Nutrition therapy and supplemental oxygen. Surgery such as Lung volume reduction surgery and lung transplant.
Epidemology: Morbidity Mortality Weekly Report study of the National Vital Statistics System reported an age-standardized death rate from COPD in the United States for adults older than 25 years of 64.3 deaths per 100,000 population. This rate varied by location, with the lowest rate in Hawaii (27.1 deaths per 100,000 population) and the highest rate in Oklahoma (93.6 deaths per 100,000 population).