It is the inflammation of the brain, caused by infection or an allergic reaction.
Symptoms: Symptoms which include: sudden fever, severe headache, nausea/vomiting, double vision, drowsiness, sensitivity to bright light, and a stiff neck; encephalitis can be characterized by fever, seizures, change in behavior, confusion and disorientation.
Diagnosis: Diagnostic tests that may be needed are: 1.Brain imaging 2.Spinal tap 3.Other lab tests such as blood and urine tests. 4.Electroencephalogram 5.Brain biopsy.
Treament: Anti-inflammatory drugs? such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others), ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) and naproxen sodium (Aleve, others) to relieve headaches and fever. Antiviral drugs- Acyclovir (Zovirax) Ganciclovir (Cytovene) Foscarnet (Foscavir)
Epidemology: Although the virus is highly genetically conserved, stochastic mutations in its genome may lead to the emergence of new strains, as was observed in Italy in 2011 with the identification of two new lineage 1 strains, the WNV Piave and WNV Livenza strains.