Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. It usually involves the heart valves. Endocarditis is characterized by lesions, known as vegetations, which is a mass of platelets, fibrin, microcolonies of microorganisms, and scant in?ammatory cells.
Symptoms: The most common symptoms of endocarditis include: a high temperature (fever) of 38C (100.4F) or above. chills. night sweats. headaches. shortness of breath, especially during physical activity. cough. heart murmurs (where your heart makes a whooshing or swishing noise between beats) tiredness (fatigue)
Diagnosis: Examination of suspected infective endocarditis includes a detailed examination of the patient, various blood tests, ECG, cardiac ultrasound (echocardiography). Analysis of blood helps reveal the typical signs of inflammation (increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, leukocytosis) and Echocardiography .
Treament: Most cases of endocarditis can be treated with a course of antibiotics. Vancomycin may also be used if tests reveal that your infection is caused by bacteria that have developed a resistance to penicillin and gentamicin, such as the meticillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strain of bacteria. Sometimes antifungal medicine also treated.
Epidemology: The in-hospital mortality was 14% and 1-year mortality was 21%. The epidemiology is changing in Italy, where IE more often affects older patients with comorbidities and intravascular devices, with an acute onset and including a high frequency of enterococci.