Esophageal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the esophagus. The esophagus is a muscular tube that moves food and liquids from the throat to the stomach. The most common types of esophageal cancer are squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
Symptoms: Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer include: Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia) Weight loss without trying. Chest pain, pressure or burning. Worsening indigestion or heartburn. Coughing or hoarseness.
Diagnosis: procedures used to diagnose esophageal cancer include: Using a scope to examine your esophagus (endoscopy): During endoscopy, your doctor passes a hollow tube equipped with a lens (endoscope) down your throat and into your esophagus. Collecting a sample of tissue for testing (biopsy): special scope passed down your throat into your esophagus (endoscope) to collect a sample of suspicious tissue (biopsy). The tissue sample is sent to a laboratory to look for cancer cells.
Treament: Surgery to remove very small tumors. Surgery to remove a portion of the esophagus. Surgery to remove part of your esophagus and the upper portion of your stomach (esophagogastrectomy). Treament for complications are: Chemotherapy,Radiation therapy and combined chemotherapy and radiation.
Epidemology: The male cohort variation seems to indicate some fluctuations in mortality before 1921 and a progressive increase after this year. In females the death rates are very low and the cohort variation is pratically constant. The progressive increase of cohort variation in esophageal cancer mortality for men born after 1921 coincides with a progressive increase in hard alcohol consumption.