Temperatures that hover 10 degrees or more above the average high temperature for the region and last for several weeks are defined as extreme heat. Humid or muggy conditions, which add to the discomfort of high temperatures, occur when a "dome" of high atmospheric pressure traps hazy, damp air near the ground.
Symptoms: The most common signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion include: Confusion, Dark-colour urine, Dizziness, Fainting, Fatigue, Headache, Muscle cramps, Nausea, Vomiting or diarrhea.
Diagnosis: Heat stroke is diagnosed by looking at signs and symptoms, such as body temperature, and finding out about the person's recent activities.
Treament: Appropriate care should be taken. The heat stroke victim needs to see a doctor as soon as possible, but the first step is to get the core temperature under control. 1.Avoid heavy outdoor activities in the summer during the hottest times of the day. 2.Wear loose-fitting, light-coloured clothes - light colours reflect more sunlight. 3.Try to relax in the shade during the hottest part of the day. 4.Avoid coffee and alcohol, especially beer, due to their fluid loss effect. 5.Learn the technique of mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
Epidemology: Italy was one of the countries most affected. To assess the impact of the summer 2003 heat waves on mortality. the Rome Local Health Authority analyzed temperature and daily mortality data for June--August 2003. This report summarizes the results of that analysis, which indicated that an estimated 1,094 excess deaths occurred during three major heat wave periods in 2003, an increase of 23% compared with the average annual number of deaths during 1995?2002.