Hyperoxaluria and oxalosis
Hyperoxaluria occurs when you have too much oxalate in your urine. Oxalate is a natural chemical in your body, and it's also found in certain types of food. But too much oxalate in your urine can cause serious problems.Hyperoxaluria can be caused by inherited (genetic) disorders, an intestinal disease or eating too many oxalate-rich foods. Quick diagnosis and treatment of hyperoxaluria is important to the long-term health of your kidneys.Oxalosis happens after the kidneys fail in people who have primary and intestinal causes of hyperoxaluria, and excess oxalate builds up in the blood. This can lead to oxalate deposits in blood vessels, bones and body organs.
Commonly, kidney stones are the first sign of hyperoxaluria. Kidney stones are uncommon in childhood. Kidney stones that form in children and teenagers are likely to be caused by an underlying condition, such as hyperoxaluria. For this reason, all young people with kidney stones should have a thorough evaluation, including measurement of oxalate in the urine. Adults with recurrent kidney stones also should be evaluated for oxalate in the urine.Symptoms of a kidney stone can include the following:Severe or sudden abdominal or flank pain,Blood in the urine,Frequent urge to urinate,Pain when urinating,Fever and chills.Primary hyperoxaluria (PH) that goes untreated can eventually damage your kidneys. Over time your kidneys may stop working. For some people, this is the first sign of the disease.
Treatment will depend on the type, symptoms and severity of hyperoxaluria and how well you respond to treatment.Medications. Prescription doses of vitamin B-6 can be effective in reducing oxalate in the urine in some people with primary hyperoxaluria. Oral preparations of phosphates and citrate help prevent the formation of calcium oxalate crystals. Other medications, such as thiazide diuretics, also may be considered, depending on which other abnormalities are present in your urine.High fluid intake. If your kidneys are still functioning normally, your doctor will likely tell you to drink more water or other fluids. This flushes the kidneys, prevents oxalate crystal buildup and helps keep kidney stones from forming.Dietary changes. The effectiveness of diet will depend on the cause of increased levels of oxalate. Diet may include restricting foods high in oxalates, limiting salt, and decreasing animal protein and sugar (high fructose corn syrup). This may help to lower urinary oxalate in people with enteric hyperoxaluria or excess dietary intake. Dietary restrictions may not be as important for all people with primary hyperoxaluria. Follow the advice of your doctor.
Oxalate retention occurs in end-stage renal failure. Regular dialysis treatment does not prevent progressive accumulation of oxalate in cases of ESRF due to primary hyperoxaluria (PH), whereas such accumulation seldom seems to occur in oxalosis-unrelated ESRF. To elucidate this issue we have measured the bony content of oxalate on biopsies of the iliac crest taken from 32 uremic patients, 7 of them with ESRF associated with PH1 (6 cases) or PH2 (1 case). Ten subjects with normal renal function and no evidence of metabolic bone disease were taken as controls. Only trace amounts levels of oxalate were detected in normal subjects and oxalate to phosphate ratio was below 3:10,000. Non-PH dialyzed patients exhibited fivefold increases in oxalate levels, which rose to 5.1 +/- 3.6 mumol/g bony tissue. Calcium oxalate was estimated to represent 0.18% of the hydroxyapatite content of bone. Oxalate amounts were neither related to pre-dialysis plasma levels of oxalate, nor with duration of dialysis treatment, suggesting that accumulation was not progressive disorder. Oxalate levels were slightly higher in patients with a low turnover osteodystrophy compared to those with a high turnover pattern. Dialyzed patients with PH had remarkable increases in oxalate levels, which ranged between 14.8 and 907 mumol/g bony tissue. Oxalate deposition appeared to be progressive in that oxalate levels were significantly related to time on dialysis. In three patients calcium oxalate was a significant fraction of the mineralized bone. The occurrence of calcium oxalate crystals affected the histomorphometric patterns, that were featured by an increase in resorptive areas and a decrease in bone formation rate.