Movement disorders are a group of diseases and syndromes affecting the ability to produce and control movement. Though it seems simple and effortless, normal movement in fact requires an astonishingly complex system of control. Movement is produced and coordinated by several interacting brain centers, including the motor cortex, the cerebellum, and a group of structures in the inner portions of the brain called the basal ganglia.
The overall crude prevalence rate was 1.87 cases per 1,000 (Arcisate 1.81; San Giovanni Rotondo 2.01). The age- and sex-adjusted prevalence rates were 1.84 in Arcisate and 2.04 in San Giovanni Rotondo. After exclusion of drug-related parkinsonism, the rates were 1.48 and 1.90, respectively. Even with some inconsistencies within the two study areas, the prevalence tended to be higher in San Giovanni Rotondo, to prevail in women, and to increase significantly with age.
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a surgical technique which is used for the treatment of Movement disorders in which an electrode (an uninsulated wire) is placed in the subcortical (below the surface) structures of the brain. This electrode is connected to a stimulator (a battery) usually placed near the collarbone.
The movement disorders group has defined the technical approach to microelectode-guided DBS implantation for dystonia, resulting in the first American publication on this technique. Another current investigational protocol is examining the use of interventional MRI during DBS, and surgery is performed within an MRI scanner to provide high-quality images of the brain during surgery and allow neurosurgeons to confirm accurate placement of the electrode while minimizing the risk of bleeding complications.