Nightmare disorder, which is also called dream anxiety disorder, is characterized by the occurrence of repeated dreams during which the sleeper feels threatened and frightened. The sense of fear causes the person to awake.Nightmares are associated with a range of psychiatric symptoms, full-blown psychiatric disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and sleep disturbances. While some psychiatric, personality, sleep and biological correlates of nightmares have been described, the vast majority of extant studies are cross-sectional, precluding conclusive determination of causality and etiology.
Treatment modalities for nightmare disorder include medications, most prominently prazosin, and several behavioral therapies, of which the nightmare-focused cognitive behavioral therapy variants, especially image rehearsal therapy, are effective.The questionnaire revealed the presence of insomnia (69.1%), RLS (18.4%), OSAS (23.6%), EDS (11.8%), possible narcolepsy (1.4%), sleepwalking (2.1%), nightmares (13.3%) and possible RBD (2.3%). Eighty percent demonstrated SLEEP+, having at least one sleep disorder.Dissociative disorders are usually paired with Nightmare Disorder 57% of the time. Nightmare disorder is believed to be associated with Dissociative Disorders as a defense mechanism that is used to escape from the traumatic event that caused the Dissociative Disorder.