Pulmonary valve stenosis is a condition characterized by obstruction to blood flow from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. This obstruction is caused by narrowing (stenosis) at one or more points from the right ventricle to the pulmonary artery. The most common form of pulmonary stenosis is obstruction at the valve itself, referred to as pulmonary valvar stenosis.
Patients with mild pulmonary valve stenosis are healthy, can participate in all types of physical activities and sporting events, and lead normal lives. The type of treatment required depends on the type of valve abnormality present. Most commonly, the pulmonary valve is of normal size, and the obstruction is due to fusion along the commissures or lines of valve leaflet opening. This "typical" form of pulmonary valve stenosis responds very nicely to balloon dilation. Balloon dilation valvuloplasty is performed at the time of cardiac catheterization and does not require open-heart surgery.
In Italy statistical analysis of pulmonary valve stenosis were given result as between October 2007 and October 2010, 63 patients were included in the registry (median age: 24 years; range 11-65 years). Forty subjects were in NYHA class I-II while 23 were in NYHA class III-IV. Patients included had a history of a median three previous surgeries (range 1-5) and a median of one previous cardiac catheterization (range 0-4). A cono-truncal disease was present in 39 patients, previous Ross operation in 9, and other diagnosis in 15. Indication to valve implantation was pure stenosis in 21 patients, pure regurgitation in 12, association of stenosis and regurgitation in 30. Implantation was performed in 61 subjects (97%). Pre-stenting was performed in 85% of cases. Median procedure time was 170 minutes (range 85-360). No significant regurgitation was recorded after procedure while the trans-pulmonary gradient reduced significantly.