Occupational stress has been a long-standing concern of the health care industry. Studies indicate that health care workers have higher rates of substance abuse and suicide than other professions and elevated rates of depression and anxiety linked to job stress. In addition to psychological distress, other outcomes of job stress include burnout, absenteeism, employee intent to leave, reduced patient satisfaction, and diagnosis and treatment errors.
We did asystematic search and synthesis of evidence on the incidence of invasive pneumococcal;disease,symptomatic disease,andcirculatingStreptococcusserotypesinwesternEurope.Usingdata from studies published between 1992 and 2005 we calculated a weighted mean invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumococcal meningitis incidence rate per 100 000 children aged 2 years or younger within 95% confidence intervals, together with the prevalence of S serotypes and resistance to penicillin.
As a general rule, actions to reduce job stress should give top priority to organizational changes that improve working conditions. But even the most conscientious efforts to improve working conditions are unlikely to eliminate stress completely for all workers. For this reason, a combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most successful approach for reducing stress at work. Organizational Change Intervention, Team process, Multidisciplinary health care teams, Multicomponent interventions, Stress Management Intervention.