Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by abnormalities in carbohydrate and fat metabolism. The causes of type 2 diabetes are multi-factorial and include both genetic and environmental elements that affect beta-cell function and tissue (muscle, liver, adipose tissue, pancreas) insulin sensitivity. Although there is considerable debate as to the relative contributions of beta-cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity to the pathogenesis of diabetes, it is generally agreed that both these factors play important roles.
Treatments for type 2 diabetes focus on: controlling blood sugar, achieving a healthy weight, improving activity levels. Both lifestyle changes and medical treatments can help to control the disease. Monitoring blood sugar is an essential part of diabetes treatment. People with diabetes need to monitor and record their blood sugar on a regular basis. Monitoring frequency varies.Type 2 Diabetes afflicts close to 250 million people in world today, 27 million in the United States alone.
The crude point diabetes prevalence rose from 3.0% in 2000 to 4.2% in 2007, a 40% increase. The incidence remained stable during the study period with a rate of 4/1000 per year. Overall mortality declined from 43.2/1000 in 2001 to 40.3/1000 in 2007 (6.7% decrease) at a rate slightly higher than that of the general population (4.8% decrease). Our projection in subjects aged ≥ 30 years indicates that the prevalence will rise continuously over the next years, reaching 11.1% in 2030.