Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is a potentially fatal multisystemic illness caused primarily by Salmonella enterica, subspecies enterica serovar typhi and, to a lesser extent, related serovars paratyphi A, B, and C. In the last six years the rate of notified cases reduced substantially from approximately 1.1 per 100,000 in 2000 to 0.4 per 100,000 in 2006. Higher rates were observed in the Puglia region when compared to the national rates in Italy. In the year 2006, 219 cases were reported in Italy. The prevalence rate was 0.4%.
The protean manifestations of typhoid fever make this disease a true diagnostic challenge. The classic presentation includes fever, malaise, diffuse abdominal pain, and constipation. Untreated, typhoid fever is a grueling illness that may progress to delirium, obtundation, intestinal hemorrhage, bowel perforation, and death within 1 month of onset. Survivors may be left with long-term or permanent neuropsychiatric complications. Researches focusing on Epidemiology, Clinical Presentation, Laboratory Diagnosis, Antimicrobial Resistance, and Antimicrobial Management of Invasive Salmonella Infections like Typhoid fever.