Typhus fevers are caused by the rickettsiae bacteria and transmitted by arthropod (e.g. flea, mite, tick) bites. When arthropods bite a victim, they leave the rickettsaie bacteria behind. Scratching the bite opens the skin to the bacteria, allowing them to enter the bloodstream. Within the blood stream, the bacteria grow and replicate.Tsutsugamushi, the pathogen that causes scrub typhus, is transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected chigger, the larval stage of Leptotrombidium mites. These larvae are not host specific and feed for 2-10 days on the skin fluids of the host. Wild rats serve as the natural reservoir for the chiggers.When the chiggers feed on humans, infection occurs.
In the Italy, about 2,194 cases of Typhus fever are reported in each year. Almost 9% of the Italy population is suffering with Typhus fever, a disease caused by bacteria called Rickettsia typhi or bacteria called Rickettsia felis.Antibiotics are the standard of care in the treatment of typhus. Continue antibiotics for 48-72 hours after the fever has resolved. A second course of antibiotic therapy is usually curative in cases of recrudescent typhus.