alexa Acute liver failure | Japan | PDF | PPT| Case Reports | Symptoms | Treatment

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Acute Liver Failure

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  • Acute liver failure

     Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare syndrome defined by a rapid decline in hepatic function characterised by jaundice, coagulopathy (INR >1.5), and hepatic encephalopathy in patients with no evidence of prior liver disease.The interval from the onset of jaundice to the development of encephalopathy occurs within 24 to 26 weeks and may further classify ALF into categories based on hyperacute, acute, or subacute presentations.Although clinical jaundice is considered a defining feature of ALF, it may not always be present, particularly in hyperacute presentations.

    Typical symptoms

    Yellowing of your skin and eyeballs (jaundice), Pain in your upper right abdomen, Abdominal swelling, Nausea, Vomiting, A general sense of feeling unwell (malaise), Disorientation or confusion, Sleepiness.

  • Acute liver failure

     Therapeutic aspects

    Treatments for acute liver failure Acute liver failure treatments may include: Medications to reverse poisoning. Acute liver failure caused by acetaminophen overdose or mushroom poisoning is treated with drugs that can reverse the effects of the toxin and may reduce liver damage. Liver transplant. When acute liver failure can't be reversed, the only treatment may be a liver transplant. During a liver transplant, a surgeon removes your damaged liver and replaces it with a healthy liver from a donor. Treatments for complications Control signs and symptoms you're experiencing and try to prevent complications caused by acute liver failure. This care may include: Relieving pressure caused by excess fluid in the brain. Cerebral edema caused by acute liver failure can increase pressure on your brain. 

  • Acute liver failure

     Statistics

    Data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database were analyzed for 1 July to 31 December 2007-2010 revealed10509 patients with ALD from a total of 11.61 million inpatients in the database. The median age was 53 years and 54.7 % were male. The annual incidence of ALD-related hospital admission was estimated to be 131.1 cases/1 million people. The overall mortality rate was 5.9 % (622 cases). The infant (0-3 years), child (4-18 years), and adult in-hospital mortality rates were 2.7 % (7/261), 1.0 % (5/494), and 6.3 % (610/9754), respectively. The infant and child mortality rates were significantly lower than the adult mortality rate (Chi square test: P = 0.03 and P < 0.001, respectively). Hepatitis A virus- and hepatitis C virus-induced ALD had favorable outcomes, with in-hospital mortality rates of approximately 2 %. Plasma exchange and continuous hemodiafiltration were performed in 5.3 % (556 cases) and 3.4 % (360 cases) of all ALD cases, respectively incidence of ALD-related admission in Japan using a large sample in a nationwide Japanese database.

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