Pathophysiology: Adult ADHD is an Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). It is mostly found in childerns. It is known childhood disorder that is characterized by varying degrees of hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention that lead to difficulty in academic, emotional, and social functioning It is associated with functional impairments in some of the brain's neurotransmitter systems, particularly those involving dopamine and norepinephrine. The dopamine and norepinephrine pathways that originate in the ventral tegmental area and locus coeruleus project to diverse regions of the brain and govern a variety of cognitive processes. The dopamine pathways and norepinephrine pathways which project to the prefrontal cortex and striatum are directly responsible for modulating executive function (cognitive control of behavior), motivation, reward perception, and motor function, these pathways are known to play a central role in the pathophysiology of ADHD.
Symptoms: Symptoms of ADHD in adults can include difficulty following directions, problems information, difficulty with concentration, and trouble with organizing tasks or completing work within time limits. Multiple factors have been found in the development of ADHD. It can run in families, and studies indicate that genes play a major role. Certain environmental factors may also increase the risk. It can also cause Problems with the central nervous system at key moments in development. It can be more challenging to identify ADHD in adults than in children. Signs and symptoms in adults can be hard to spot. No single test can confirm the diagnosis. Diagnostic criteria must have six or more signs and symptoms from one or both of the two categories like Inattention and Hyperactivity and impulsivity.
Treatment: Stimulants (psychostimulants) are the most commonly prescribed medications for ADHD. Stimulants like methylphenidate (Concerta, Metadate, Ritalin, others), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), dextroamphetamine-amphetamine help treat the signs and symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity. Other medications include atomoxetine (Strattera) and antidepressants such as bupropion (Wellbutrin). Atomoxetine and antidepressants work slower than stimulants and may take several weeks. Treatment also includes psychological counselling.
statistics: The approximate Adult ADHD incidence in Eastern Asia, Japan is found to be 154,48.