Pathophysiology: Cysticercosis (cyst in various tissues) is a systemic infection caused by Taenia solium (pork tapeworm) at larval or metacestode stage, when humans ingest incompletely cooked beef or pork that is infected. The raw or undercooked meat contains cysticerci of tapeworm that develops in to a tapeworm invading muscles, tissues, brain, eyes, spine etc.
Treatment: Cysticercosis is treated with anti-parasitic (albendazole, niclosamide) drugs in combination with anti-inflammatory drugs; sometimes surgery may be required. Neurocysticercosis is treated with corticosteroids to reduce inflammation & anticonvulsants are used to prevent seizuers. More prolonged treatment courses (e.g. 30 days of albendazole, which may be repeated) may be needed for extraparenchymal or extensive disease. Albendazole is more likely to be effective against extraparenchymal forms of the disease because of better penetration than praziquantel into the CSF.
Statistics: According to research studies, as many as 389 cases of cysticercosis were reported in Japan from 1908 to 1997 and a total of 454 cysticercosis cases that have been reported in Japan between 1908 and 2011.