Escherichia coli is one of the most frequent causes of many common bacterial infections, including cholecystitis, bacteremia, cholangitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), and traveler's diarrhea, and other clinical infections such as neonatal meningitis and pneumonia. The vast majority of neonatal meningitis cases are caused by E coli and group B streptococcal infections (28.5% and 34.1% overall, respectively). Pregnant women are at a higher risk of colonization with the K1 capsular antigen strain of E coli. This strain is also commonly observed in neonatal sepsis, which carries a mortality rate of 8%; most survivors have subsequent neurologic or developmental abnormalities. Low birth weight and a positive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture result portend a poor outcome. In adults, E colimeningitis is rare but may occur following neurosurgical trauma or procedures or complicating Strongyloides stercoralis hyperinfection involving the CNS.
Signs and symptoms of E. coli O157:H7 infection typically begins three or four days after exposure to the bacteria, though you may become ill as soon as one day after to more than a week later. Signs and symptoms include: Diarrhea, which may range from mild and watery to severe and bloody, Abdominal cramping, pain or tenderness, Nausea and vomiting etc. For illness caused by E. coli, no current treatments can cure the infection, relieve symptoms or prevent complications. For most people, treatment includes: Rest, Fluids to help prevent dehydration and fatigue, Avoid taking an anti-diarrheal medication this slows your digestive system down, preventing your body from getting rid of the toxins. Antibiotics generally aren't recommended because they can increase the risk of serious complications.
E coli is the leading cause of both community-acquired and nosocomial UTI. Up to 50% of females eventually experience at least one episode of UTI. E coli causes 12-50% of nosocomial infections and 4% of cases of diarrheal disease. EAggEC causes 30% of cases of traveler's diarrhea. E coli neonatal meningitis carries a mortality rate of 8%, and most survivors have neurological or developmental abnormalities. E coli infections have no recognized racial predilection. E coli UTI is more common in females than in males because of differences in anatomic structure and changes during sexual maturation, pregnancy, and childbirth. Men older than 45 years with prostatic hypertrophy are at an increased risk of UTI due to related bladder stasis. Among neonates, E coli UTI is more common in boys than in girls, but circumcision reduces the risk.