Esophageal cancer is a disease in epidemiologic transition. Until the 1970s, the most common type of esophageal cancer in the United States was squamous cell carcinoma, which has smoking and alcohol consumption as risk factors; since then, there has been a progressive increase in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma, for which the most common predisposing factor is gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). The progression of Barrett metaplasia to adenocarcinoma is associated with several changes in gene structure, gene expression, and protein structure. Esophageal cancer usually begins in the cells that line the inside of the esophagus. Esophageal cancer can occur anywhere along the esophagus, but in people in the United States, it occurs most often in the lower portion of the esophagus. More men than women get esophageal cancer.
Signs and symptoms of esophageal cancer include: Difficulty swallowing (dysphagia), weight loss without trying, chest pain, pressure or burning, worsening indigestion or heartburn, coughing or hoarseness etc.
Treatment for esophageal cancer is based on the type of cells involved. Surgery to remove the cancer can be used alone or in combination with other treatments. Operations used to treat esophageal cancer include: Surgery to remove very small tumors, surgery to remove a portion of the esophagus, surgery to remove part of your esophagus and the upper portion of your stomach.
Esophageal cancer is the seventh most common cause of cancer death in males. Esophageal cancer is generally more common in men than in women. The male-to-female ratio is 3-4:1. It occurs most commonly during the sixth and seventh decades of life. The disease becomes more common with advancing age; it is about 20 times more common in persons older than 65 years than it is in individuals below that age.
Genetics and Epigenetics, Systems biology, SLAC ( Stem cell biology, longevity /Ageing and cancer biology) with a focus on chromatin remodelers w/o the stressors, particularly radiation, heat shock, and nutrient deprivation by using both C.elegans model organisms and mammalian systems.
Tumor Treating Fields (TTFields) induced cancer cell death may be immunogenic resulting in enhanced antitumor efficacy when combined with immune-modulating therapy PPT Version |
Detection of a negative correlation between prescription of Chinese herbal products containing coumestrol, genistein or daidzein and risk of subsequent endometrial cancer among tamoxifentreated female breast cancer survivors in Taiwan between 1998 and 2008: A population-based study PPT Version |
Classically, the 3âuntranslated region (3âUTR) is that region in eukaryotic protein-coding genes from the translation termination codon to the polyA signal. It is transcribed as an integral part of the mRNA encoded by the gene. However, there exists another kind of RNA, which consists of the 3âUTR alone, without all other elements in mRNA such as 5âUTR and coding region. The importance of independent 3âUTR RNA (referred as I3âUTR) was prompted by results of artificially introducing such RNA species into malignant mammalian cells. Since 1991, we found that the middle part of the 3âUTR of the human nuclear factor for interleukin-6 (NF-IL6) or C/EBP gene exerted tumor suppression effect in vivo. Our subsequent studies showed that transfection of C/EBP 3âUTR led to down-regulation of several genes favorable for malignancy and to up-regulation of some genes favorable for phenotypic reversion. Also, it was shown that the sequences near the termini of the C/EBP 3âUTR were important for its tumor suppression activity. Then, the C/EBP 3âUTR was found to directly inhibit the phosphorylation activity of protein kinase CPKC in SMMC-7721, a hepatocarcinoma cell line. Recently, an AU-rich region in the C/EBP 3âUTR was found also to be responsible for its tumor suppression. Recently we have also found evidence that the independent C/EBP 3âUTR RNA is actually exists in human tissues, such as fetal liver and heart, pregnant uterus, senescent fibroblasts etc. Through 1990âs to 2000âs, world scientists found several 3âUTR RNAs that functioned as artificial independent RNAs in cancer cells and resulted in tumor suppression. Interestingly, majority of genes for these RNAs have promoter-like structures in their 3âUTR regions, although the existence of their transcribed products as independent 3âUTR RNAs is still to be confirmed. Our studies indicate that the independent 3âUTR RNA is a novel non-coding RNA species whose function should be the regulation not of the expression of their original mRNA, but of some essential life activities of the cell as a whole. PPT Version |
PEGylated-thymoquinone-nanoparticle mediated retardation of breast cancer cell migration by deregulation of cytoskeletal actin polymerization through miR-34a PPT Version |
Prognostic value of ER, PR, and HER2 breast cancer biomarkers and AJCCâs TNM staging system on overall survival of Caucasian females with breast cancer: An institutionâs 10 year experience PPT Version |
Antiproliferative effect of main dietary phytosterols and/or Î²-cryptoxanthin in human colon cancer Caco-2 cells through cytosolic Ca2+ - and oxidative stress-induced apoptosis PPT Version |
Effectiveness of Ayurvedic treatment in alleviating side-effects of radiotherapy in oropharyngeal cancer patients and its relationship with improvement in immune status of the host PPT Version |